Biodiversity and Willows

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Biodiversity and Willows

Postby duane » Thu Jun 07, 2007 9:07 pm

This is an excerpt from Jerry Brunetti of ACRES in the USA.
"Many thanks for "Back From the Brink"! I feel like I know this guy. It's the kind of stuff I've been witnessing myself for several decades. It's so damn obvious how it works, if experts could realize that the solutions are both simple, yet holistic, which is what the "complexity" is all about. If we only could collectively admit the world is in grave danger and could collectively be enlightened to the realization that we can make a massive difference in such a reasonably short period of time, the forgiveness of nature being what it is, the divine spark within the DNA of every cell, firing 100,000 photonic messages and biochemical reactions every single second. So much of his experience emulates Louis Bromfield of "Malabar Farm", my hero of the 1940's and 1950's. Next week, I start my annual planting of willows along the riparian buffer. I try to plant 100-200 willows/year fantastic tree. If I had a daughter, her name would be "Willow". To see Jerry's Article on Biodiverse Forage click on
http://www.nsfarming.com/references.htm

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Postby duane » Thu Jun 07, 2007 9:12 pm

As a 'bidgee boy" from the sixties - many a happy holiday was spent wandering the river banks, swimming and snorkling the river pools and watching the platypus at play from up near Cooma down to Burrenjuck . It was during these years - when I was studying honours biogeography at the ANU - that my ecological studies of rivers and floodplains began.

I note from the "Bidgee Buzz" undertones of anxiety about "exotics' in the river corridor. Research on riparian biota indicates there are proably greater grounds for concern about the phytotoxicity of Australian red gums! Please be aware that the International Convention on Biodiversity specifically embraces all biota. Since the 1968 UNESCO international conference on "Use and Conservation of the Biosphere" in France, the UN position has remained unchanged:

"there is no fundamental difference between natural, wild or modified, sem-natural or developed, domesticated or purely artifical vegetations. The laws governing these ecosystems are identical"

When UN Agenda 21 was adopted by member states at Rio in 1992 - and subsequently became international law - the biodiversity concept was excluded from the key list of 27 principles defining sustainable development and environemtnal protection. Biodiversity is still only a convention because biologists have been unable to demonstate that there is a functional relationship between the Linnaen classification of species and environmental performance. It may come as a surprise to some that the Australian concept of native biodioversity is inconsistent with the international biodiversity convention. It is more about personal beliefs and conservation funding programs than the ecological integrity of watersheds and their environmental performance.

Peter Andrews has demonstrated clearly that the UNESCO position on vegetation, ecosystems and environmental performance is the safe and sound one. Aguably, willows are the world's premier riparian plants - they are used in every continent except Antarctica for riparian and stream restoration works. I have noted from my work in the River Murray, Billabong, "Bidgee and Shoalhaven watersheds that Australia willow communities are excellent nurse crops encouraging the natural regeneration of casuarina as well as providing prime habitat for water dragons, marsupial water rates and platypus; and from beneath the water perspective, willow root plates are veritable supermarkets of macroinvertebrates, yabbies and fish.

Nature does nothing useleslly noted Socrates, a fact worth pointing out to readers in the Bidgee Buzz. You might also add that Nature is an equal opportunity employer - she does not discriminate on the basis of race, genera or species. That is a human failing. A few years ago, I was advised by the leaders of a German Parliamentary Delegation on Conservation and the Environment visiting New Zealand - while here they investigated "native biodiversity programs" - that in Germany they call native biodiversity "ecofascim" because it is based on the same nativist principles that underpinned Hitler's Fascism.

Now that Peter Andrews has shown Australians that exotics are indeed necessary for rehabilating Australian rivers and streams, as well as sustainable farming and ecoforestry, perhaps the Bidgee Buzz can take the lead and expose the "exotics are pests" mentality as a sadly misinformed ecocolonial myth doing more damage than good. It is far, far better to teach your community to observe and enjoy the exciting dance of ecosynthesis uniting native and exotic biota in new and improved riparian ecosystems.

Warm regards
Haikai Tane
______________________
Professor Haikai Tane
Director Watershed Systems

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Postby duane » Thu Jun 07, 2007 9:17 pm

More support for the work Peter Andrews comes from the ARC Program at Baramul in the Hunter Valley where scientists from Southern Cross university, ANU and Newcastle Uni and DNR have been studying the effects of NSF in the degraded Widden Brook.
Below is Dr Richard Bush' Interim Report


RE: An update on our ARC Project "LP4455080_ Restoring hydrological connectivity of surface waters and groundwaters: biogeochemical processes and environmental benefits for river landscapes."


The aim of our ARC project has been to examine the application of NSF for improving the sustainability and function of river landscapes. The function of the landscape in this case being the provision of high quality aquatic and riparian habitat, improved security of surface waters, and enhanced connectivity of surface waters and ground waters. Key aspects of our proposal have been completed ahead of schedule, with startling results. The significance of these results is reflected in the invitation to present our research in two oral papers at the upcoming "5th Australian Stream Management Conference" to be held in Albury, May 22nd-25th. The ABC science program Catalyst, will also be featuring our research during May.

Over the past 4 months the research team have been finalising a number of the key monitoring aspects of our NSF project at Baramul. The project commenced two and half years ago and the results are curiously outstanding. We have been surprised by how fast the riverine corridor has responded to the NSF initiative. Our key observations and their significance are:

1) The dramatic recovery of riparian vegetation through the treatment reach at Baramul. Conditions along the stream appear to strongly promote the colonisation of the stream banks, lower floodplain and benched within the channel with Casuarina (she-oak). There is evidence of the native vegetation out-completing the exotic vegetation and in many reaches the Willow, which was introduced and planted on a large scale by the state govt., is being replaced by the native vegetation. The colonization is so prolific, many areas where we conducted channel terrain surveys only 12 months ago, are now entirely vegetated.

2) There has been the development of channel features indicative of a stream undergoing incredible recovery within and immediately downstream of the NSF treatment reach. These landforms include the development of substantial channel bars and benches, the development of pools, rifles and low flow meandering runs (shallow connecting flows). Historical records tell us that such landforms were once common in the Widen Brook, but like so many other degraded streams, it has been totally lost through channel erosion.

The recovery of these channel features is most dramatic immediately downstream of the NSF structures (7 major structures in total), this demonstrates the compounding benefit of an integrated NSF system. The conclusion is that "scale" and the integration of multiple NSF structures can be optimised. Further testing of NSF over a number of implementation scales would be useful for optimising investment vs. landscape improvement.

3) Surface water resources have persisted in the stream and pools in the NSF treatment reach whereas surface water has been absent both in the non-NSF treated areas upstream and down stream. This is significant given that last year Baramul received just 400mm of rainfall, far below the 700 mm average for the Widden catchment. The enhanced availability of surface waters in the NSF treatment reach is puzzling, although predicted by Peter Andrews.

We have tested a number of hypotheses including high spatial resolution mapping of bed-rock to determine if bed-rock confinement was a factor. It was not. Next week we will be testing additional aspects of groundwater recharge/discharge through detailed pump tests of groundwater bores

4) Groundwater-surface water monitoring clearly shows that NSF is enhancing the connectivity of the stream flow with floodplain shallow alluvial aquifers. A major issue raised by the 2002 CSIRO report was the potential for this enhanced connectivity to increase salinisation.

Our monitoring, including detailed and highly sensitive continuous monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters in very close proximity to the stream, have not detected a measurable change in the prevailing salinity of either the groundwaters or the surface waters in the NSF treatment reach.

5) Macro invertebrates are a tremendous indicator for water quality and aquatic health. Our industry partners (NSW Dept of Environment) have conducted two annual surveys so far following the AusRivas national protocol and have reported far greater diversity within the NSF study reach, a diversity that is equivalent to that found in the very upper pristine reaches of Widden Brook, deep within the Wollombi National Park.

The significant diversity and abundance of macro invertebrate in the NSF treatment reach has been attributed to the development of a connected and relatively stable aquatic habitat. The availability of surface waters, diversity in habitat types (pools-riffles-runs that are absent elsewhere in Widden Brook) and the healthy riparian vegetation are important factors contributing to the diversity and abundance of macro invertebrates within the NSF treatment reach. This is a very positive tick of environmental improvement. The final survey is to be conducted in the coming months.

The NSF system is producing some remarkable improvements to the sustainability and function of the riverine landscape at Baramul. These results are very interesting and indicate a great potential for similar benefits in other landscape settings and agriculture production systems.

However, the ARC Project because of its very narrow focus on river management is obviously no substitute for the WaterSmart Landscape Rehydration Project. The National Water Commissions' Landscape Rehydration Project bid offers a great opportunity to apply NSF and gain benefits at a significant environmental, social and economic scale, crossing many agricultural production systems.


Dr Richard Bush

Australian Research Fellow of the Australian Research Council Co-Director of Centre for Acid Sulfate Soil Research School of Environmental Science and Management Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, 2480.
ph 0428 268587
fax 02 66212669

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Postby duane » Fri Aug 17, 2007 10:12 pm

This is a summary of a paper presented by Dr Michael Wilson of the Murray Darling Basin Commission. Dr Wilson was a Senior research scientist at the University of Ballarat in Victoria. He did his PhD on willows and ran postgraduate programs for 10yrs looking at the role of willows in Australian streams.

Willows: weeds of retention

Dr Michael Wilson
Sustainable Rivers Audit, Murray-Darling Basin Commission

Summary

The way materials, including organic matter, are retained, stored and transformed is at the heart of stream ecology. Retention, storage and transformation of soil, nutrients, salt, seeds and organic matter are also crucial to long-term farm productivity. A landscape view of retention is useful to those interested in ecology and production, and is highly relevant to understanding Natural Sequence Farming.
All but a few willow species are declared Weeds of National Significance and they line tens of thousands of kilometres of streams in south east Australia. They were once widely recommended for riparian planting and restoration, however now the same agencies advocate their removal. Whilst the policy has changed the fundamental biology of willows and their influence on stream function has not.
At this conference I will present ten years of research conducted by my PhD and honours students and myself. The key message is that retention rates of sediment, organic matter, nutrients and woody debris are greater in streams lined by willows than those lined by bare banks (pasture). Retention rates in willow-lined streams are similar to or sometimes greater than in streams lined by native vegetation in agricultural zones. Even more surprising is that this is true even for streams lined by native vegetation last cleared in the gold rush. The recovery from gold rush river metamorphosis in Central Victoria is very slow under native vegetation, even in low-disturbance forest reserves, compared to under willows. Our research has confirmed that high retention rates are largely due to willow root mats and entrapment of large woody debris.
We have studied numerous ecological parameters in willow, native and cleared reaches and we have seen the same overall pattern. The willow-lined streams we have studied in agricultural zones have high ecological and geomorphological values, often greater than those lined by native vegetation. Both native and willow lined streams have higher value than cleared streams. A canopy, regardless of whether it is willow or native, controls in-stream metabolism and temperature. Tree limbs and trunks supply woody debris and deep extensive root systems armour banks and shape the channel. There are also flow-on effects for stream biota, for example 80% of River Blackfish use undercut banks armoured by willow root mats as day time refuges in Birches Creek. Similar results have been found for platypus burrows in the Shoalhaven. Macroinvertebrate assemblages are more diverse and there is greater abundance in highly retentive root mats compared to bare banks or those lined by tea-trees, especially during tunes of high flow. The bugs and fish are taking advantage of the flow refuge provided by the root mats. These patterns are not surprising but are controversial because willows have been declared weeds and society finds it difficult to acknowledge benefits from weeds.
There are specific differences between willows and native trees (eg the palatability of leaves, seasonal patterns of light levels below the canopy, and litterfall timing). However, with the exception of those specifically related to light levels under a deciduous canopy, we have found these to be within the range found for native riparian species.
Clearing willows (or any other riparian tree cover) is not beneficial to in-stream ecological processes in agricultural zones. It is sometimes defended in that it clears the way for planting native vegetation. However, the clearing phase is destructive, recovery is slow and during the establishment of mature native forest retention rates and overall ecological values are low. New approaches are needed to establish the preferred forest without clearing ie using a successional approach. The fact that a stream ecologist and a farmer (Peter Andrews, Natural Sequence Farming) have independently arrived at the same conclusion in relation to willows is noteworthy. A good understanding of the ecological values associated with retention of materials, energy and nutrients in streams would compliment hydrological studies in Natural Sequence Farming systems and help shift public policy and perceptions away from simplistic approaches to weeds.

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Postby duane » Fri Nov 09, 2007 11:35 am

Hear Dr Michael Wilson of the MDBC interviewed by ABC's Di Martin on Radio National recently.

Michael gives his view on the current Willow removal program following more than 10 years research into the use of willows as repair, primary succession plants and their role in the repair of degraded ecosystems in Australia.

Click on http://www.abc.net.au/cgi-bin/common/pl ... player=wmp and follow the links to the LAST hour of the program. Scroll the tuning dial till you reach the 8.30 minute timeframe...the session lasts for approx 8 mins.

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Postby duane » Tue Nov 20, 2007 9:10 pm

A TALE OF TWO CITIES


Removing willows from LAUNCESTON rivers

When a city such as Launceston sits at sea level at the junction of two rivers — the North and South Esk - flooding is a constant threat. The great flood of 1929 made 4,000 people homeless and most bridges in the midlands were carried away.

Flood damage to city levees is now reduced due to work by the combined North Esk Landcare groups, who have removed thousands of tonnes of crack willows along the river floodplain which were blocking the river.

Today previous flows likely to cause flooding are contained within the banks and any flooding recedes within hours rather days resulting in less damage to properties and the riverbank.

Funding
A rescue effort of around $84,000, funded by the Australian Government Envirofund, has brought the choked river back to life.

Gus Green has volunteered for the North Esk River Landcare group for 15 years and said the results were "out of this world."

"Before we started you couldn't see the river at all, it was lifeless because of the willow infestations," Gus said.

Activities
"We had about 40 people working on it at one stage and we're still taking willows out. What started in 1989 with the formation of the landcare group has transformed an urban landcare situation into a project for the whole people."

The crack willows have since been used as mulch for newly-planted native trees, which revegetate a five kilometre stretch of riverbank.

On the other side of the river from Gus lives Dr Bill Wood, a marine scientist who in his spare time volunteers with the local Landcare group.

"Once the willows get old they fall over and block the flow. This increases drag and the river flows over its banks as the water can't get away," Bill said. "Farmers use the water for irrigation of high value crops, however even minor floods were inundating lucerne and poppy crops and threatening livestock. Once the willows were removed the problem improved out of sight."

Willows are European deciduous trees and when in leaf do not allow sunlight through water plants. This dramatically changes the ecology of the river.

"Now the river is returning to its natural state, you can regularly see platypus and spot the threatened Green-and-Gold-Frog. The valley is also supporting a diverse bird population including Sea Eagles and other raptors such as Peregrine Falcons."

Contrast the above with:

Snags return life to the Glenelg River, CASTERTON

Snags deposited in the Glenelg River near Casterton in south-west Victoria

More photos
Snags are being heaved back into the Glenelg River in southwest Victoria in a bid to recreate vital habitat for many native aquatic plants and animals.

In the 1960s and 70s logs and branches were removed from the 400-kilometre waterway, particularly in the reach flowing through the rural town of Casterton, off the Hamilton Highway near the South Australian border.

It was thought this would prevent flooding of the town by flushing out a build-up of sand in the river. Instead, the riverbed levelled out to what has been described as a 'flat highway of sand.'

Funding
In 2004 the Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority (CMA) initiated a project to restore in-stream habitat in the Glenelg River. The project received funding from the Australian and State Government-funded National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality and other contributions from the Victorian Government.

Activities
Glenelg Hopkins CMA's River Health Project Officer Lucy Cameron said over the past three years snags had been reinstated along a three-and-a-half kilometre stretch of river near Casterton.

"Large woody debris is an important natural component of most river systems," Lucy said.

"When tree trunks and limbs fall into the stream, they can slow the flow to create a deeper pool that supplies vital habitat for river plants and animals during drought. Debris also creates crevices and niches for invertebrates which in turn supply food for larger animals and fish."

Snags are sourced from a mineral sands mine operated by Iluka Resources at Douglas, about 20 kilometres from Balmoral. The company supplies the CMA with eucalypts such as Red Gum and Yellow Gum left over from its logging operations.

Woody debris is deposited near holes created where sand has been extracted. The combination of removing the sand build-up in the river, which was partially caused by a massive flood in 1946, and reinstating snags helps to create holes deep enough for species such as the Yarra Pygmy Perch to shelter from currents and predators.

Awareness-raising events have helped garner support from the local community, which has put its weight behind the re-snagging effort. Many residents of Casterton who remembered endorsing de-snagging now see the value of snags.

Achievements
"Seeing the scour pools created by those pieces of wood is very gratifying," Lucy said.

"Native fish that suffered as a result of habitat loss, such as River Blackfish, will be better off as they rely on these pools and hollow logs to lay their eggs."

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Postby duane » Thu Feb 28, 2008 9:06 am

The National Willows Task is coming to see the results of Peter's Andrews' work with willows on Widden Brook.

I'll report any outcomes as soon as they come to hand.

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Postby duane » Wed Mar 03, 2010 1:43 pm

BAD NEWS FOR WILLOWS, wholesale slaughter planned Nationwide.... info from the National Willows Taskforce

This is the greatest waste of Taxpayers money and resources.....and these people need to be held accountable.

State Region "WILLOWS Priorities" January2010

National - over-arching priorities (specific actions are described for each region below). "Begin or continue and support eradication of national outliers:
- seeding and male willows in WA;
- identify high risk willows and eradicate from Queensland
- seeding willows in Tasmania;
- seeding willows in SA (containment).

Core infestations should be managed to prevent spread and protect assets.

Education and awareness activities:
- Continue to develop willow identification skills through ID training (a kit is available to help with these).
- Continue to address community value and concern over willow management through education and awareness (eg erect interpretation signage on project sites, print and distribute national willows extension materials).

Continue mapping new areas and update data in existing areas, and feed this information back to the National Willows Program."
"Highest priorities in bold text.
Highest priority REGIONS highlighted in pink." "Highest priorities are in bold text.

Highest priority REGIONS are highlighted in pink.
"
ACT ACT National data for the Australian Capital Territory indicates that all of the very high priority taxa appear to be infesting less than 100 hectares and likely to be eradicable: S. nigra,S. cinerea, S. alba, S. babylonica, S. purpurea, S. x sepulcralis, S. fragilis and S. x pendulina. Where eradication is not feasible, national data should be updated and management should focus on Asset protection and preventing the spread of seeding willows.
NSW Border Rivers-Gwydir Only four willows are recorded in very small infestations in this region (S. babylonica**, S. fragilis, S. cinerea, S matsudana). If this is true extent these infestations should be targeted for eradication*. Otherwise either national records need to be updated with regional data, or further monitoring and data collection is required in the region. Prevent spread into QLD. Education and awareness.
NSW Central West S. cinerea could possibly be targeted for eradication* (or data needs to be updated). All other high risk willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Hawkesbury-Nepean Few willows are recorded to occur in this region indicating S. cinerea and S. nigra as potential targets for eradication*. Possibly national records need to be updated or further monitoring and data collection is required. Eradicate if feasible or target core infestations to prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Hunter-Central Rivers Target S. cinerea for eradication*. Few willows are recorded to occur in this region. Either national records need to be updated or further monitoring and data collection is required. Eradicate small infestations where feasible. Prevent spread and protect assets where not (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Lachlan Few willows are recorded to occur in this region. Either national records need to be updated or further monitoring and data collection is required. Eradicate small infestations where feasible. Prevent spread and protect assets where not (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Lower Murray Darling There is only one record in this region (S. babylonica). Eradicate* this single infestation or prevent spread by monitoring for incursions of other willows^ and removing any male willows found (to prevent possible hybridisation and/or spread by seed of female willows). (See national coordinator for detailed location data). See also "statewide/national" activities below.
NSW Murray Target S. nigra and S. purpurea for eradication*. Update national data where required. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Murrumbidgee Target S. viminalis and S. purpurea for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Namoi Few willows are recorded to occur in this region (20ha). Either national records need to be updated or further monitoring and data collection is required. Eradicate small infestations where feasible. Prevent spread and protect assets where not. Education and awareness (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Northern Rivers Target S. cinerea for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread (especially into Qld) and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Southern Rivers Target S. cinerea, S. viminalis and S. purpurea for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Sydney Metro Few willows are recorded to occur in this region indicating S. cinerea as a potential target for eradication*. Possibly national records need to be updated or further monitoring and data collection is required. Eradicate if feasible or target core infestations to prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
NSW Western Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict much potential distribution (very high in the far north-east and high throughout). Current willow disitribution in neighbouring regions increases this threat. Education and awareness starting in areas of very high potential distribution.
NT Northern Territory Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict potential for high risks willows S. babylonica**, S. exigua and S. nigra to establish. (Very high potential distribtuion in the far south and moderate in the centre). Education and awareness to montior and prevent incursion of these taxa.
Qld QMDC (Border Rivers-Maranoa Balonne) Eradicate* single specimens or single infestations of S. x pendulina and S. fragilis. Eradicate* or prevent spread of S. babylonica**. Monitor for, identify & sex other willow taxa^ - remove any male willows (first) to prevent hybridisation and/or nearby female willows spreading via seed. (See national coordinator for detailed location data).
Qld "North
Queensland
Dry Tropics (Burdekin)" Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict areas of very high to high potential distribution in the far south of this region. Education and awareness in these areas.
Qld Burnett Mary Eradicate* or prevent spread of S. babylonica**. Monitor for incursions of other willows^ and prevent spread (and hybridisation) of S. babylonica by targeting any male willows found. (See national coordinator for detailed location data).
Qld Cape York Willows are not known to occur in this region. They fall outside the modelled potential distribution.
Qld Condamine Eradicate* single specimens or single infestations of S. alba. Eradicate* or prevent spread of S. babylonica**. Monitor for, identify & sex other willow taxa^ - remove any male willows (first) to prevent hybridisation and/or nearby female willows spreading via seed. (See national coordinator for detailed location data).
Qld Desert Channels Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict areas of very high to high potential distribution in the east of this region. Education and awareness in these areas.
Qld Fitzroy Basin 5 records of S. babylonica** (only female), target for eradication or prevent spread by removing any male willows found (to prevent spread and hybridisation of S. babylonica).
Qld Reef Catchments (Mackay Whitsunday) Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict moderate to likely potential distribution in the south. Report any known occurances.
Qld Northern Gulf Willows are not known to occur in this region. They fall outside the modelled potential distribution.
Qld South East Queensland Eradicate* single specimens or single infestations of S. x rubens. Monitor for, identify & sex other any willow taxa^ - remove any male willows (first) to prevent hybridisation and/or nearby female willows spreading via seed. (See national coordinator for detailed location data).
Qld South West Queensland Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict large areas of very high potential distribution. Education and awareness in these areas.
Qld Southern Gulf Willows are not known to occur in this region. Although models predict moderate to likely potential distribution in the south. Report any known occurances.
Qld Torres Strait Willows are not known to occur in this region. They fall outside the modelled potential distribution.
Qld Terrain (Wet Tropics) Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict high and likely potential distribution in the mid-west. Report any known occurances.
SA Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges The following willow taxa are high risk and should be considered for eradication* in South Australia: S. x rubens, S. nigra, S. cinerea, S. alba, S. babylonica**, S. x sepulcralis and S. fragilis. See also "statewide/national" activities below.
SA Alinytjara Wilurara Willows are not known to occur in this region. Models predict some very high potential distribution in the far south east. Education and awareness in these areas.
SA Eyre Peninsula Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict large areas of very high potential distribution. Education and awareness in these areas.
SA Kangaroo Island Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict very high or high potential distribution. Education and awareness in these areas.
SA Northern and Yorke The following willow taxa are high risk and should be considered for eradication* in South Australia: S. x rubens, S. nigra, S. cinerea, S. alba, S. babylonica**, S. x sepulcralis and S. fragilis. See also "statewide/national" activities below.
SA South Australian Arid Lands Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict very high and high potential distribution in parts of this region (very high in the far south and high in central areas). Education and awareness in these areas.
SA South Australian Murray Darling Basin The following willow taxa are high risk and should be considered for eradication* in South Australia: S. x rubens, S. nigra, S. cinerea, S. alba, S. babylonica**, S. x sepulcralis and S. fragilis. Prevent spread into Mallee region of Victoria. See also "statewide/national" activities below.
SA South East The following willow taxa are high risk and should be considered for eradication* in South Australia: S. x rubens, S. nigra, S. cinerea, S. alba, S. babylonica**, S. x sepulcralis and S. fragilis. See also "statewide/national" activities below.
Tas North Continue to target S. cinerea for statewide eradication. Monitor and follow up previous activities as per recommendations in "Tasmanian seeding willows Project Report, May 2009" (TLWP). Other willow taxa should be managed to prevent spread and protect assets.
Tas North West (Cradle Coast) Continue to target S. cinerea for statewide eradication. Two of three statewide priority areas for immediate control occur in this region (Nabageena and Arthur River). Other S. cinerea infestations should be controlled according to recommendations in "Tasmanian seeding willows Project Report (May 2009) - by TLWP". Other willow taxa should be managed to prevent spread and protect assets.

Tas South Continue to target S. cinerea for statewide eradication. One of the three statewide priority areas for immediate control occur in this region (Bruny Island). Other S. cinerea infestations should be controlled according to recommendations in "Tasmanian seeding willows Project Report (May 2009) - by TLWP". Other willow taxa should be managed to prevent spread and protect assets.
Vic Corangamite Target S. x pendulina for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic East Gippsland Target S. purpurea for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic Glenelg Hopkins Target S. cinerea for eradication*. Willows are recorded to be sparse in this region. Possibility to target other high risk willows for eradication, or national records require updating. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic Goulburn Broken Target S. nigra for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic Mallee Only one record of S. x sepulcralis, remove if possible. Monitoring for incursion of other willow taxa^, particularly along Murray & tributaries near SA border.
Vic North Central Target S. cinerea for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic North East Target S. x pendulina, S. purpurea and S. nigra for eradication*. Continue eradication of S. cinerea from Alpine high plains (bogs) and reduce threat of further invasion by controlling source populations. See also "statewide/national" activities below.
Vic Port Phillip and Westernport Target S. x pendulina for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic West Gippsland Target S. nigra for eradication*. Other willows: prevent spread and protect assets (see "statewide/national" activities below).
Vic Wimmera According to national data only one record of S. babylonica exists in this region. It is likely that this data needs to be updated. Action taken to eradicate high risk willows (where in existance) and/or to prevent spread and protect assets; (see "statewide/national" activities below).
WA Avon Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict very high potential distribution across most of this region. Education and awareness.
WA Rangelands Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict some areas of potential distribution (very high in the southern coastal area and high through central rangelands). Education and awareness in these areas.
WA South Coast Eradicate* or prevent spread of S. babylonica** and S. x sepulcralis. (See national coordinator for detailed location data). Monitor for further incursions of other willows^.
WA South West Eradicate* or prevent spread of S. babylonica** and S. x sepulcralis. (See national coordinator for detailed location data). Monitor for further incursions of other willows^.
WA Perth Eradicate* S. cinerea from its two known locations around Perth (Bayswater and Armadale). (See national coordinator for detailed location data). Monitor for further incursions of of S. cinerea or its close relative, S. x reichardtii. Monitor for incursions of other willows^.
WA Northern Agricultural Region Willows are not known to occur in this region. However models predict very high to high potential distribution across this region. Education and awareness.
Statewide/national


All regions - asset protection "Manage willows that cannot be eradicated to prevent spread and protect high value assets.
Consider focussing on other C4OC targets for core areas, such as Ramsar, HCVAE, inc. native habitat (EPBC etc), threat to world heritage. Coordinate efforts with other regions and states."
All regions - education and awareness - Continue to develop willow identification skills through ID training (a kit is available to help with these).
All regions - education and awareness - Continue to address community value and concern over willow management through education and awareness (eg erect interpretation signage on project sites, print and distribute national willows extension materials).
All regions - improve knowledge on distribution Continue mapping new areas and update data in existing areas, and feed this information back to the National Willows Program.
All of WA There are very few male willows known to occur in Western Australia. Male willows should be made a target for management to prevent female willows spreading via seed.
All of QLD Identify male catkins on any willow species, and remove male willows to prevent nearby female willows spreading via seed.
All of TAS "Continue to target S. cinerea for statewide eradication. Activities and detailed location data as per recommendations in Tasmanaian Land and Water Professionals ""Tasmanian seeding willows Project Report (May 2009)"".
Confirm ID and map S. babylonica more accurately to determine its management priority and options (currently appears eradicable as database shows only two records)."
All of VIC Monitor and prevent establishment of S. viminalis (report any occurances to National Coordinator)
* Current national data indicates these taxa may be eradicated from this CMA. If eradication is not feasible, please inform national program and provide updated distribution data (for greater accuracry of future priorities).
** Note: S. babylonica is an exception to the WoNS listing. Eradication/removal is still strongly encouraged as this was found to be a high risk willow, however there needs to be careful consideration of community values prior to any management.
^ see "regional prioritisation matrices", available at www.weeds.org.au/WoNS/willows

Contact Kelly Snell at kelly.snell@dpi.vic.gov.au to make your disquiet known about this useless slaughter of the best riparian plants known.

duane
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Re: Biodiversity and Willows

Postby duane » Wed Jan 19, 2011 7:50 am

I'm bringing this post forward because of the current interest in this willows issue.


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